Protein Synthesis: Simplified.

Transcription (Within the nucleus):
1. RNA polymerase binds to the base sequence of a gen.
2. This enzyme unwinds a portion of the DNA molecule, exposing part of the gene.
3. RNA polymerase moves along one strand of the exposed gene and catalyzes synthesis of an mRNA molecule, whose nucleotides are complementary to those of the strand of the gene.
4. When RNA polymerase reaches the end of the gene, the newly formed mRNA molecule is released.
5. The DNA molecule rewinds and closes the double helix.
6. The mRNA molecule passes through a pore in the nuclear envelope and enters the cytoplasm.

Translation (Within the cytoplasm):
1. A ribosome binds to the mRNA molecule near the codon at the beginning of the messenger strand.
2. A tRNA molecule that has the complementary anticodon brings its amino acid to the ribosome.
3. A second tRNA brings the next amino acid to the ribosome.
4. A peptide bond forms between the two amino acids, and the first tRNA is released.
5. This process is repeated for each codon in the mRNA sequence as the ribosome moves along its length, forming a chain of amino acids.
6. As the chain of amino acids grows, it folds, with the help of chaperone proteins, into the unique conformation of a functional protein molecule.
7 The completed protein molecule (polypeptide) is released. The mRNA molecule, ribosome, and tRNA molecules are recycled.


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